Comparison of levels of chloroplast DNA diversity of two Shorea species with contrasting geographical distribution
Zulfahmi1*, Utari Ocsewonda Mahfira2, Ulfah Juniarti Siregar3, Iskandar Zulkarnaen Siregar3, Tedy Yunanto4
1Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim, Panam, Pekanbaru 28293, Riau, Indonesia,
2Alumni of Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 1668, Indonesia,
3Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 1668, Indonesia,
4Directorate General of Mineral, Coal and Geothermal, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta, 12870 Indonesia.
*Author for Correspondence.
Department of Agrotechnology,
Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science,
State Islamic University of Sultan Syarif Kasim,
Panam, Pekanbaru 28293,
The analysis of the distribution of genetic diversity in a species provides useful information for conservation programs and management at the species level. The objective of this study was to observe the distribution of chloroplast DNA haplotypes and to assess their variation within and among populations of two Shorea species. Results of this study showed that each of the two species was characterized by a different common haplotype. Polymorphisms were found in each species, but the overall haplotype variation was low due to the low number of cpSSR markers investigated. A low level of intra-specific variation was detected in natural populations of S. parvifolia and S. laevis in which only three haplotypes and four haplotypes were found, respectively. A strong differentiation among populations of S. parvifolia and S. laevis were observed (GST = 0.582 and GST = 0.736, respectively), indicating limited gene flow among populations of two Shorea species. Despite its restricted distribution, S. laevis exhibited higher genetic diversity than the more widespread S. parvifolia. It is clear that the expectation of reduced genetic diversity in species with restricted distribution is not always borne out. Geographical distribution of haplotypes did not clearly reflect the distribution of two Shorea species populations. The findings of this study could be utilized as basic information to conserve the sources of genetic diversity in S. parvifolia and S. laevis in the future.